Imperialism in Latin America

Monroe Doctrine: a US policy of opposition to European interference in Latin America, announced by President James Monroe in 1923
Spanish-American War: an 1898 war between the US and Spain, where th US supported Cuba's desire for freedom from imperialistic rule
Panama Canal: a manmade waterway connecting hte Alantic and Pacific Oceans, built in Panama by the US (opened in 1914)
Roosevelt Corollary: President Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine; Roosevelt declared that the US had the right to exert power throughout the Western Hemisphere
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna: a Mexican political leader and eventual President of Mexico
Benito Juarez: President of Mexico (1858-1872). Born in poverty in Mexico, he was educated as a lawyer and rose to become chief justice of the Mexican supreme court and then president. He led Mexico's resistance to a French invasion in 1863 and the installation of Maximilian as emperor
La Reforma: a liberal reform movement in 19th century Mexico, founded by Benito Juarez
Porfirio Diaz: Mexican politician who would later become the President of Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911
Francisco Madero: politician, writer and revolutionary who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913
Francisco "Pancho Villa": was born under the name Doroteo Arango.
After he had killed a landowner he fled and joined a gang under Pancho Villa, and soon became his right hand man. Villa became the Robinhood of the Mexican people, because of his hatred for the Mexican government and American gringos. In the eyes of the people, Villa was afraid of no one. Villa stole from the rich and gave to the poor, and killed any man who got in his way.
Emiliano Zapata:
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately defeated and assassinated.


U.S. Imperialism in Panama:
The Spanish controlled Panama but left the territory primarily alone. Other countries, however did not miss its strategic position. Panama became part of Colombia, but did not like being ruled by them.

Effects of Imperialism:
Panama was not happy with Columbia’s rule in their country, so the United States helped them overthrow it to get the Panama Canal in return. America stayed in Panama to build and use the canal until 1977, when the Panamanians wanted to be fully independent.

No major negative effects of U.S. economic imperialism in the area!

Imperialism in Panama:
Panama was a territory of Spain. They were not given much attencion however, and were part of "Gran Colombia". They were motivated to gain independence just for the sake of being their own country. THe United States helped them gain independence with the Panamians promises to allow them to build the Panama Canal.

The people in the Panama appreciated the help the United States has given them. (Ex. Freeing them from Columbian rule and overthrowing dictator, Noriega.) The United States helped Panama gain it's independence. The United States is now living peacefully with them, and both countries still benefit from the canal.

This is an example of the Roosevelt Corollary. The image shows President Roosevelt influence in the Western hemisphere by bringing the U.S. navy into the area.

This image is showing how the Monroe Doctrine kept the European powers away from the Western Hemisphere. The United States then began to get rid of all the European claims and make their own on Latin America. This represents the beginning of US imperialism in Latin America.

Reading Notes:
I. Imperialism in Latin America
A. Railroads and the Imperialism of Free Trade

1. Latin American economic potential was huge. The regiion could produce many agricultural and mineral products in demand in the industrial countries.
2. Railroads would open up the interior for development. In the 1870s almost every country in Latin america had acquired railroads.
3. Latin American's embraced new technologies. However they did not have steel or mechanical industries, so all equipment came from The United States of Britian.
4. Agebtina produced wheat, beef, and hides. also gained the longedst and best-developed rail network. 86%of their railroads were owned by the British; 40% of workers were British; and the official railroad language was British.
5. Political elites in Latin America encouraged foreign companies.
B. American Expansion and the Spanish-American War
After 1865 Europeans used their finantial power to penetrate Latin America.

2. They avoided territorial acquisisstions for four reasons: 1) They were overextended in Africa and Asia. 2) There was no need, because the Latin American governments provided political backing for economic arrangements. 3) the Latin Americans had shown themselves capable of resisting invasion. 4) the U.S., claimed to defend the entire Western hemisphereagainst all outside intervention. (However the Monroe Doctrine did not prevent the United States from intervening in Latin American Affairs.)
3. America had invested in Cuba.
4. In 1895 the Cuban nationalist Jose Marti started a revolution against Spanish rule. Then on February 15, 1898 the U.S. Battleship Maine blew up, the Americans blamed the Spanish. The Spanish agreed to evacuate, but the American press and Congress were eager for war. War began.
5. On May 1, 1898 the U.S. destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila and did even more damage. By mid- August the Spanish were calling out for peace.
6. The United States purchased the Philippines for Spain, but took Puerto Rica and Guam as war prizes. (These two islands remain American possessions.)
7. Cuba became an independent republic, however subjected to intense interference by the U.S..
C. American Intervention in the Caribbean and Central America, 1901- 1914
1. Nation of the Caribbean and Central America were small and weak. They were like and invitations to foregin interference.
2. To ward off European interference the U.S. sent in the marines on more than one occasion.
3. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrow Wilson felt impelled to intervene in the region. (Roosevelt encouraged regimes friendly to the U.S.; taft sought to influence them through loans from the American banks; and the moralist Wilson tried to impose clean governments through military means.)
4. After "liberating" Cuba the U.S. forced the Cuban governemtn to accept the Platt Amendment in 1901. This amendment gave the United States the "right to intervene" to maintian order on the island. Cuba became an American protectorate.
5. The U.S. brought sanitation and material progress but no political improvements.
6. U.S. esspecially forceful in panama. This issue was not corruption or debts but more vital interset: the construction of the Panama Canal. (Previously tried by the French but financial scandals and yellow fever stopped that expidenture.)
7. Americans recoginzed the strategic value of the canal: to move warships quickkly between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
8. Work began in 1904, and the Panama Canal opened on August 15, 1914.
I. The World Economy and The Global Environment
A. Expansion of the World Economy

1. Industrial revolution expanded markets for spices, sugar, silk, tropical products, agricultural products: cotton, palm oil, and minerals.
2. Growing needs of the industrial world couldn't be met by the traditional methods of production and transportation.
3. When the United States Civil War interrupted the export of cotton, the British turned to india.
4. One change was in transportation of goods through the Suez and Panama Canals, which cut time and lowered freight cost dramaticly.
5. Numerous railroads across the East helped with expenses also and steamships were being increase in numbers and size.
B. Tranformation of the Global Enviroment
1. Econmic botany and agricultural science were applied to every promising plant species.
2. European botanists had long collected and classified exotic plants from around the world.
3. Gardeners not only collected local plants but also exchanged plants with other gardeners.
4. Rubber was used tp make waterproof garments, bicycles tires, originally came from a plant.
5. British agents smuggles seedlings from Brazil to the Royal Botanical Gardens.
6. Land in the tropics was once again covered with forests or devoted ro shifiting slah-burn agriculture.
7. Irrigation and water control transformed the dry parts of the tropics as well. European technologies were spread.
8. Railroads brought people to areas previously occupied by small populations.
9. Prospectors began looking for minerals and opened the earth to reveal its treasures.
10. This transformation of the land is consant througout history. These changes increased European and North American power.